Circular economy supported by renewable energy

Cutting carbon emissions

The 2015 Paris Climate Agreement seeks to limit the global temperature increase to a maximum of 2 °C (1): a goal that can only be met by a drastic reduction in the use of fossil fuels.

Phase-out of fossil fuel

Reducing the world’s dependence on fossil fuels will increase our dependence on minerals (2). A 2017 World Bank Report explains there will be much higher demand for cobalt, copper, manganese, nickel and molybdenum among other metals (3).  The rapidly growing demand for electric cars will place enormous pressure on nickel, manganese and cobalt, all of which are used in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

(2) O. Vidal, B. Goffé, N. Arndt, Metals for a low-carbon society, Nature Geosci. 6 (2013) 894–896. doi:10.1038/ngeo1993 


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